This inaugural symposium will feature three speakers who were former fellows of Dr. George Blackburn when he directed the Nutrition and Metabolism fellowship program at the New England Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Each talk highlights a contribution to Nutrition and Metabolism by Dr. Blackburn. The first will review the origins of the very low calorie diet (VLCD) in the landmark studies that Drs. Blackburn and Bistrian published using intravenous amino acids to provide nutrition in hospitalized patients with obesity which preserved lean muscle mass while promoting fat oxidation and the development and persistence of ketosis for energy during critical illness. The second talk will review the history of the development of present day bariatric surgery procedures and techniques and discuss the emergence of guidelines for patient safety and efficacy. These guidelines were spearheaded by Dr. Blackburn. The third talk will review four decades of research in nutrition and critical illness, much of which came from early studies by Drs. Blackburn and Bistrian in supporting critically ill patients with nutrition therapy both enterally and intravenously. The introduction and closing remarks will consolidate the enormity of contributions of Dr. Blackburn to the science of nutrition and obesity medicine.

3:30pm Introduction
3:40pm The Protein Sparing Modified Fast and Development of the Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD) for Obesity Treatment
Caroline Apovian, MD
4:00pm The History of Bariatric Surgery and Development of Standards for Patient Safety and Efficacy
Lee M Kaplan, MD PhD
4:20pm Four Decades of Research Into Obesity, Inflammation and Critical Illness: A Basic Science Perspective
Lyle L Moldawer, PhD
4:40pm Panel Discussion