Osteopenia/Osteoporosis, Sarcopenia and Obesity are frequently observed during the aging process. Osteosarcopenia (OS) has been related with poorer health outcomes in elderly subjects. Higher Body Mass Index (BMI), in the elderly, has been associated with a reduced mortality risk and other health outcomes. There is a new, recent syndrome, Osteosarcopenic Obesity (OSO) that describes individuals with obesity, low bone and muscular mass. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between BMI and OS in community dwelling elderly.
We analyzed data from 68 elderly subjects that attended to our center, in order to receive a weight loss program, through 2015-2016. In DXA analysis Osteopenia/Osteoporosis was considered in case of a T-Score of -1.0 or less, and low-muscular mass (Sarcopenia) was defined as an Appendicular skeletal muscle mass of 7.26 kg/m2 or less in men, and 5.5 kg/m2 or less in women; Obesity was defined in those individuals with BMI above 30 kg/m2.
The sample was composed by 45% male subjects with a mean age of 65.6 + 5.0 yrs old and a mean BMI of 31.7 + 6.3 kg/m2. The prevalence of Osteopenia/Osteoporosis, Sarcopenia and Obesity was of 38.2%, 20.6% and 60.3%, respectively. The prevalence of OS was of 10.3% (all female). The bivariate analysis showed that sarcopenia was more common in elderly women than in men (85.7% female, P=0.008). The regression analysis showed that a BMI over 30kg/ m2, was inversely related to the presence of Osteosarcopenia (β Coef. -2.167, P=0.0001), even after adjustment to gender, age, smoking and diabetes.
In this study we found BMI over 30kg/m2 as a possible protective factor against the presence of Osteosarcopenia, reinforcing the theory of higher BMI as a factor for reduced mortality and other health outcomes in elderly subjects.